Fred Irwin Greenstein is best known for his contributions to the systematic study of political psychology and for its application to presidential decision-making and leadership. He received his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1960 and did postdoctoral study at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute (1961-62). After an initial appointment at Yale (1959-62), he taught at Wesleyan University (1962-73). Greenstein settled at Princeton University in 1973 and is the director of its Program in Leadership Studies at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. He has served as secretary of the American Political Science Association and is a fellow in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His most recent books are How Presidents Test Reality (1989, with John P. Burke) and The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to George W. Bush (2004). He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and past president of the International Society for Political Psychology.