Mr. Grunsfeld received his B.S. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1980 and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1984 and 1988 respectively. As a veteran of four space flights, he logged forty-five days in orbit on missions that included Astro-2 Endeavor, Atlantis, Discovery, and Columbia. Mr. Grunsfeld has also served as the Chief Scientist for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He designed a robot to be launched in 2007 that extends the life of the Hubble Telescope from three to eight years.